### Chem 131C. Lec. 09. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. The 1st law (review) & adiabatic processes part II (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 09. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- The First Law (review) & Adiabatic Processes Part II --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Description: In Chemistry 131C, students will study how to calculate macroscopic chemical properties of systems. This course will build on the microscopic understanding (Chemical Physics) to reinforce and expand your understanding of the basic thermo-chemistry concepts from General Chemistry (Physical Chemistry.) We then go on to study how chemical reaction rates are measured and calculated from molecular properties. Topics covered include: Energy, entropy, and the thermodynamic potentials; Chemical equilibrium; and Chemical kinetics. This video is part of a 27-lecture undergraduate-level course titled "Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics" taught at UC Irvine by Professor Reginald M. Penner.

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on April 20, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:07 - In Today's Lecture

00:20 - heat, q, and work, w

00:51 - The Sign Convention

01:16 - Formula and Diagram ("surroundings")

03:19 - Diagram: (heat, q...)

04:11 - Other Flavors of Work:

04:30 - That's w, what about q?

05:27 - Since chemical reactions are typically carried out at a constant...

06:01 - Formula: it's convenient to give the quantities in parentheses a name...

06:33 - "Two forms of.." Calcite and Aragonite photo

06:55 - Problem: The change in U when 1.0 mole of calcite is...

09:43 - The heat capacity is the slope of the U (or H)

11:14 - Problem: a common method for measuring heat capacities...

13:31 - "Heat capacity over constant pressure..." (formulas and solutions)

14:16 - Problem: Find ΔH for the heating of 2.0000 moles...

16:47 - Adiabatic Processes

20:58 - Graph ("Isotherm...")

23:18 - Problem: 2.0 moles of neon that expands adiabatically...

Required attribution: Penner, Reginald Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics 131C (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html. [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

Gianmarc Johns Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 10. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Jim Joule (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 10. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Jim Joule --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Description: In Chemistry 131C, students will study how to calculate macroscopic chemical properties of systems. This course will build on the microscopic understanding (Chemical Physics) to reinforce and expand your understanding of the basic thermo-chemistry concepts from General Chemistry (Physical Chemistry.) We then go on to study how chemical reaction rates are measured and calculated from molecular properties. Topics covered include: Energy, entropy, and the thermodynamic potentials; Chemical equilibrium; and Chemical kinetics. This video is part of a 27-lecture undergraduate-level course titled "Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics" taught at UC Irvine by Professor Reginald M. Penner.

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on April 25, 2012.

Index of Topics:

04:13 - In an adiabatic process, q=0 for the process...

07:51 - note: The change in P with an expansion is larger...

08:04 - Isotherm Graph

10:21 - ...now it's not obvious from these equations...

13:27 - About Jim Joule

14:20 - Joule's dad was a brewer

18:24 - Now, you should know that Joule was quite an experimentalist.

20:09 - Diagram: He actually did this experiment quantitatively

21:04 - The quantity of work that must be expended at sea-level...

22:35 - 77255 and California DMV

22:58 - Diagram: ...so in 1853, he did the following experiment

23:44 - So why did Joule expect a temperature change?

23:49 - ...this is the Leonard-Jones 6-12 potential.

27:29 - For an ideal gas, the intermolecular potential...

27:38 - Diagram: At high pressures, you're here.

28:17 - Diagram: At "normal" pressures, you're here.

28:43 - Well, recall that for a real gas, the compressibility factor...

29:09 - The compressibility factor, Z, for a real gas...

30:29 - The compressibility factor, Z, for a real gas reflects these two manifolds...

31:00 - (Diagram) Now, let's do a thought experiment...

32:33 - question: where does the energy come from?

34:03 - 1853: Jim Joule tried to measure...

35:05 - 1854: Joule teams up with a new friend, William Thompson (AKA Lord Kelvin)

36:40 - The Joule-Thompson Effect...

39:43 - so, the Joule-Thompson process occurs at constant enthalpy.

41:12 - but Joule and Thompson were delighted to find that for real gases...

41:52 - Problem: The Joule-Thompson coefficient of air at 300K and 25 atm...

45:13 - "Plot from your Chapter 14...temperature as a function of pressure."

45:54 - note that real gases have two inversion temperatures at each pressure value:

47:13 - The Linde Refrigerator: A mechanical heat pump...

Required attribution: Penner, Reginald Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics 131C (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html. [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 11. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Midterm 1 review (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 11. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Midterm 1 Review --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Description: In Chemistry 131C, students will study how to calculate macroscopic chemical properties of systems. This course will build on the microscopic understanding (Chemical Physics) to reinforce and expand your understanding of the basic thermo-chemistry concepts from General Chemistry (Physical Chemistry.) We then go on to study how chemical reaction rates are measured and calculated from molecular properties. Topics covered include: Energy, entropy, and the thermodynamic potentials; Chemical equilibrium; and Chemical kinetics. This video is part of a 27-lecture undergraduate-level course titled "Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics" taught at UC Irvine by Professor Reginald M. Penner.

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on April 25, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:05 - Announcements

00:28 - Midterm Exam

00:52 - Partition Functions: Enjoy in any of Four Flavors...

01:51 - Example: The NO molecule has a doubly degenerate...

03:24 - Plot It:

05:01 - ...(b) the electronic contribution to the molar internal energy...

05:08 - Equations

05:22 - More Equations

05:38 - (Diagram) The electronic contribution to the molar internal energy...

06:32 - Here's a midterm exam question from a couple of years ago.

08:42 - Which equation(s) do I need?

10:31 - If you are asked: calculate the fraction of molecules...

10:48 - so what were we asked again? B. Now one mole of...

12:06 - The equipartition theorem:

13:33 - now you'll recall that the heat capacity...

14:15 - Formula: the equipartition theorem tells us...

14:17 - the equipartition theorem tells us that translation contributes...

14:41 - Graph: the contribution of molecular translation...

14:55 - Formula: ...this is also the heat capacity for all monoatomic gases

16:01 - For a linear molecule:

16:44 - Graph: translation + rotation

16:53 - For nonlinear molecule:

17:45 - ...well, let's go back to the classical Hamiltonian again.

18:12 - so following through with the predictions of the equipartition...

18:58 - Formula: in the specific case of a diatomic, we get:

19:02 - Formula Graph:

19:10 - Example: Use the equipartition theorem to estimate...

20:05 - Too subjective, let's use this rule of thumb:

Required attribution: Penner, Reginald Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics 131C (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html. [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 12. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Entropy and the 2nd law (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 12. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Entropy and The Second Law --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on April 30, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:09 - Introduction

01:02 - Announcements

02:11 - where are we (chapter and timeline)?

04:00 - 1st Law: Energy is conserved for an isolated system ΔU = 0.

05:32 - Coin Experiment

06:35 - experiment: conclusion (the most important one so far)

06:51 - Boltzmann postulated that this parameter

07:11 - We can readily apply this equation to this expansion of gas.

08:11 - Now, what is the probability that...

09:05 - Problem: Gas A and Gas B are located in two halves of a container

13:07 - What if instead of the change in entropy...

13:33 - Formula (S =)

14:09 - Calculate the standard molar entropy of neon gas at (a) 200K, (b) 298.15K.

15:53 - Sadi Carnot

17:54 - match the scientist with his country

18:44 - entropy

19:28 - the Carnot Cycle

21:00 - A heat engine extracts work from a temperature gradient

21:41 - The Carnot Cycle (graph)

23:31 - what do we know for sure? (graph continued from Carnot Cycle)

24:18 - how efficient is a heat engine?

25:10 - efficiency (slide at 24:18 continued)

26:24 - how efficient is a Carnot Cycle?

27:28 - let's prove this:

27:52 - now, this pair of (T,V) data points lie on an adiabat:

29:55 - Problem: A heat pump is used to maintain the temperature of a building at 18°C...

32:03 - Problem: What is the entropy change, ΔS, for each of the four steps as a reversible Carnot cycle

32:31 - Diagram: Since S is a state function, we can write:

33:50 - so we represented in a Temperature-Entropy diagram...

34:48 - Since S is a state function, we can write:

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 13. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Carnot cycle (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 13. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- The Carnot Cycle --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Description: In Chemistry 131C, students will study how to calculate macroscopic chemical properties of systems. This course will build on the microscopic understanding (Chemical Physics) to reinforce and expand your understanding of the basic thermo-chemistry concepts from General Chemistry (Physical Chemistry.) We then go on to study how chemical reaction rates are measured and calculated from molecular properties. Topics covered include: Energy, entropy, and the thermodynamic potentials; Chemical equilibrium; and Chemical kinetics.

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on May 2, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:06 - Introduction: The Carnot Cycle (Lecture 13)

01:02 - Announcements

02:39 - Midterm I Score

07:04 - How Am I Doing (Scores)?

09:37 - Sadi Carnot

10:52 - A heat engine extracts work from a temperature gradient.

11:38 - The Carnot Cycle

12:43 - The Carnot Cycle (Graph)

12:56 - ...ANY process can be decomposed into a large number of Carnot Cycles, so...

14:59 - how efficient is a heat engine?

16:12 - Let's prove this:

16:37 - (Graph) now, this pair of (T,V) data points lie on an adiabat:

20:27 - Problem: What is the entropy change...

21:05 - Since S is a state function, we can write:

24:07 - Formulas: What do we know?

25:55 - so (once again) represented in a Temperature-Entropy...

26:43 - What if one or more steps of the process are irreversible?

30:13 - Rudolf Clausius!

30:50 - T-shirt of Clausius

31:31 - and a more general statement of this is called the Clausius Inequality

31:59 - let's say we transition from state I to state 2...

33:02 - according to the Clausius inequality:

33:42 -The Second Law of Thermodynamics.

33:48 - This equation makes predictions about 3 types of processes:

34:30 - If we consider, in particular, an isolated system...

35:18 - some simple but important examples:

36:55 - some simple but important examples: (II)

39:53- Because S, like U, is a state function, you can add...

40:34 - example - Calculate the entropy change when Ar gas...

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 14. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. The Gibbs Energy (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 14. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- The Gibbs Energy --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on May 4, 2012.

Index of Topics:

02:15 - Introduction (The Gibbs Energy)

03:30 - ...just one of these guys won Nobel Prize - which one?

07:14 - J. Willard Gibbs (1839 - 1903)

10:44 - ...has its own Facebook page

10:57 - buried in the Grove Street cemetery...

11:10 - Map "...Yale campus"

11:37 - Map II

12:10 - we now know some basic thermodynamics concepts and their statistical...

12:52 - Diagram: The system and the surroundings: Three flavors...

13:39 - Diagram: For an isolated system, the entropy of the system increases during a spontaneous process:

14:13 - Diagram: If the system isn't isolated, then the entropy of both the system...

15:03 - For an isolated system, the entropy of the system increases...

16:26 - (cont) q is a conserved quantity...

17:59 - now multiply by...

26:04 - but in chemistry, T is frequently constant...

28:02 - for any process occurring at const. volume...

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 15. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Getting to Know the Gibbs Energy (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 15. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Getting to Know The Gibbs Energy --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on May 7, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:06 - Introduction: Getting to know the Gibbs Energy

00:51 - Announcements:

01:54 - UC Irvine wins NCAA men's volleyball title...

02:19 - Today's tasks

02:42 - Diagram: The system and the surroundings: Three flavors...

04:22 - Formula (spontaneous process: nonisolated system)

04:43 - q is a conserved quantity...

06:09 - Chart: in Friday's lecture...

07:20 - in chemistry, T is frequently constant...

07:55 - let's consider...

09:57 - to achieve the const. volume condition...

11:16 - for any process occurring at const. volume and temperature...

11:50 - In chemistry, it is even more useful to be able to make predictions...

14:17 - for any process occurring at const. pressure...

14:37 - today (and, ahem, last Friday)

14:54 - Chart

15:56 - Graph ("reaction coordinate...")

19:10 - Among these four thermodynamic "potentials"...

20:37 - How does G depend on temperature?

21:00 - conclusions:

21:20 - plot (Gibbs energy and temperature)

22:04 - now, if we substitute from this equation for S...

22:31 - substitute and solve for the derivative

23:30 - now, to go further, note the chain rule that tells us that:

24:40 - (cont) this bad boy is called the Gibbs-Helmholtz Eq.

25:56 - Ok, now how does G depend on pressure...

27:35 - conclusion: Gibbs energies of solids and liquids...

28:18 - Gibbs energies of gases depend strongly on P.

29:20 - Diagram, Formula

30:19 - We define a standard molar Gibbs...

31:08 - Graph, Formula

32:54 - exercise 15, 29b: The change in the Gibbs energy of 25 g...

39:20 - exercise 15.24b: Calculate the standard Gibbs free energy change...

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 16. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. The Chemical Potential (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 16. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- The Chemical Potential --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on May 9, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:05 - Announcements:

01:41 - Today:

02:40 - The Chemical Potential

02:50 - ...from last Monday, and last Friday:

03:48 - useful | more useful

04:49 - Graph (What does...)

06:28 - How does G depend on temperature?

08:28 - The third law of thermodynamics...

09:50 - Graph

10:32 - We usually consider the temp. dependence of...

11:26 - This bad boy is called the Gibbs-Helmholtz Eq.

12:09 - This bad boy...(cont)

12:43 - Ok, now how does G depend on pressure...

13:54 - but, for phases, like solids and liquids, that are essentially...

14:17 - For ideal gases:

14:47 - conclusion: Gibbs energies of solids and liquids...

15:40 - The T-dependence of the Gibbs function:

17:31 - Now, as we transition (however briefly) into...

18:06 - How do individual reactant and product species...

18:17 - Matter matters: How is G affected by transfers...

18:45 - we haven't said much about open systems that exchange matter:

18:54 - consider the mixing of two isotopes of hydrogen (experiment)

21:10 - since G is an extensive variable

22:09 - we understand the T and P dependencies of G already...

23:57 - we know, after we open the valve, the isotopes will...

26:06 - combining these statements allows us to express...

28:05 - so with the valve open, mixing stops when...

29:33 - The partial molar Gibbs free energy is to..

32:34 - the partial molar Gibbs free energy (cont)

32:44 - The figure from your book really helps...

34:54 - the partial molar Gibbs free energy is too important

39:38 - exercise 16.4b: A mixture of ethanol and water is prepared...

42:34 - Now, we already understand that G is minimized upon an approach to equilibrium...

42:39 - In other words...

44:00 - This is called the Gibbs-Duhem Eq.

44:57 - Graph: This permits an understanding of thermal phase transactions:

45:36 - We already know how this works for, say, water:

49:13 - "the system "selects" the phase of lowest..."

49:24 - now, before we go further, let's clear up some mystery...

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 17. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Finding Equilibrium (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 17. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Finding Equilibrium --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on May 11, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:06 - Introduction Finding Equilibrium

00:21 - today:

00:58 - how do individual reactant and product...

01:22 - what can we deduce about the equilibrium state...

01:35 - we know, after we open the valve...

02:19 - so with the valve open, we showed that the mixing stops when:

03:35 - the chemical potential of species I.

04:47 - really? yes, think about it this way:

07:16 - you should know...

10:18 - Now, we already understand that G is minimized upon...

10:31 - now, before we go further, let's clear up a mystery...

11:25 - let's return to our two gas bulbs:

11:42 - ...let's return to...

12:02 - Diagram: ...we open the valve...

12:31 - Let's calculate G:

14:49 - hey, that's not on the line.

15:51 - now, since we know: ΔG = ΔH - TΔS...

16:38 - Graph

17:59 - resveratrol makes things live longer...what things?

18:22 - resveratrol makes things live longer...what things (photos)

18:46 - it also prevents cancer in mice...

19:20 - and resveratrol is found in red wine.

19:42 - does this have anything to do with thermodynamics?

20:19 - consider this generic isomerization reaction:

21:01 - Example

21:14 - now, our plot of G versus reaction coordinate...

21:46 - we define the slope of this plot at any value...

23:08 - so under conditions of const. P and...

24:58 - "that means there's three types of reactions..."

25:20 - It's a strange word, infrequently used even by chemists...

25:51 - Exergonic

25:57 - ok, but we still have not learned any more about WHERE equilibrium...

26:40 - we define a standard molar Gibbs free energy...

28:19 - ok, now for every value of...

29:45 - in other words...

30:00 - what does this mean?

31:23 - ...refresher on...

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 18. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Equilibrium in Action (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 18. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Equilibrium In Action --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on May 14, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:06 - Introduction - Equilibrium in Action

00:21 - Good job on Quiz 5

01:19 - Today

01:45 - the chemical potential of species...

02:34 - ...think about this way "...Gibbs energy"

03:33 - about μ, you should know...

04:44 - now, before we go further, let's clear up a mystery...

05:31 - Diagram

06:36 - Diagram: This is the positive entropy of mixing - the reason equilibrium exists.

07:39 - Consider this generic reaction ("extent of reaction...)

08:07 - For example, if ΔΕ...

08:30 - now, our plot of G versus reaction coordinate can be recast...

08:48 - we define the slope of this plot at any value of E...

09:47 - so under conditions of const. P and...

10:54: so as a function of E...

11:35 - ok, but we still have not learned any more about WHERE equilibrium is located...

12:43 - we define a standard molar Gibbs free energy...

13:41 - ok, now for every value...

15:10 - In other words...

15:45 - what does this mean?

16:17 - ok, make sense. What about...

17;36 - ...refresher on...("from Chem 1...")

18:54 - returning to our plot, we can say...

20:01 - example: A mixture of CO(g)...

21:41 - Diagram: our reaction looks like this...

24:10 - answer: 2) write an expression for...

24:39 - answer: 3) Calculate K:

25:29 - we know Q and K - what happens?

25:47 - Calculate

26:35 - ...means reaction, at this temperature and with this mix...

27:28 - example: What if, instead of...

28:26 - "we will make a little more methanol...by adding more..."

29:26 - example: Consider the following reaction...

36:48 - answer

39:58 - Henry Louis Le Chatelier (1850 - 1936)

40:19 - (cont) "I let the discovery of the ammonia synthesis slip through my hands..."

42:35 - the most influential persons of the 20th century?

44:17 - where did fixed nitrogen come from before 1920?

45:48 - Le Chatelier's Principle says, for example...that with an increase...

47:22 - Example: Can we determine the relationship between...

47:44 - answer: " we have to calculate the mole fraction of each of these two components..."

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 19. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Observational Chemical Kinetics (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 19. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Observational Chemical Kinetics --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on May 16, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:06 - Introduction: Observational chemical kinetics

00:17 - Henry Louis Chatelier (1850 - 1936)

00:25 - Henry Lous Chatelier..."I let the discovery of the ammonia sythesis slip..."

02:21 - Le Chatelier's Principle says, for example, that with an increase in the total...

02:47 - example: Can we determine the relationship between...

03:06 - answer:

06:30 - what about the influence of temperature on K?

08:12 - That's it for Thermodynamics (Topic discussed in Chapter 17)

10:11 - Diagram: where are we?

12:30 - the first chemical subjected to kinetic analysis?

13:12 - some notation & jargon...a stoichiometric reaction...

17:30 - so an elementary reaction is one in which the indicated products...

17:53 - we discussed the extent of reaction...

18:52 - this is not as confusing as it looks. Here's an example...

20:19 - in terms of the extent of reaction...

22:44 - ...for this generation reaction...

23:20 - in terms of the extent of reaction...

23:30 - A rate law relates the concentration of reactants...

28:23 - for stoichiometric reactions, the rate law can not be deduced by inspection.

30:08 - Often, reactions are significantly reversible and both the forward and backward...

32:10 - be reminded that these simple expressions apply only because...

33:35 - what are the units of the rate constant in this case?

34:46 - Method 1. Method of Initial Rates

40:05 - Method 2. Use an integrated rate law.

43:59 - Method 2. (continued) Half-life

45:17 - Graph: (length of half of line is constant.)

45:55 - How do we experimentally determine the rate of law

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 20. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. The Integrated Rate Law (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 20. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- The Integrated Rate Law --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on May 18, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:09 - Introduction: Integrated Law

00:18 - today...

00:41 - Two types of reactions: take for example the following:

02:19 - stoichiometric

03:12 - for elementary reactions...

04:09 - this is another bimolecular reaction

07:14 - How do we experimentally determine the rate law?

17:48 - Method 3 - Use the integrated rate law to define the half-life of the reaction.

20:30 - vs time for a 2nd order reaction...

21:10 - Method 2: Use an integrated rate law.

21:56 - we've mentioned 1st order and 2nd order reactions...zero order reaction.

23:15 - [A] vs time for a 0 order reaction

23:56 - what kind of reaction does this?

24:36 - the microscopic view of "heterogeneous" catalysis

26:00 - some common integrated rate laws.

27:06 - so in reality, we have three methods for classifying a reaction...

28:30 - Method 3. Measuring the influence of initial reactant concentration...

29:08 - example: what % will decompose after one hour?

30:34 - For reversible reactions, we mentioned...

31:34 - Let's start with the simplest reversible reaction:

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 21. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. The Steady State Approximation (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 21. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- The Steady State Approximation --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on May 21, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:05 - some announcements...

02:37 - today...

03:36 - Svante Arrhenius

04:20 - Arrhenius discovered the greenhouse effect in 1896

04:39 - Article Arrhenius wrote about climate change

05:59 - experimentally we often observe an acceleration...Arrhenius Equation.

10:25 - consecutive reactions are sequences of reactions...

11:49 - an understanding of consecutive reactions is important...

12:44 - consider this generic consecutive reaction:

14:28 - what do these equations predict about [B] versus time?

18:02 - Ok, now let's look at the other possibility:

18:36 - what if...

20:23 - this suggests an expedient method for dealing with...steady-state approximation

25:50 - So - how does this compare with the exact solution?

27:08 - ...Let's first examine a case where we expect that it will work well...

28:40 - now we'll make...

29:16 - now a case where we expect...

30:32 - ...and this is a complete disaster - just as expected.

31:16 - the Steady-State Approximation:

33:43 - REMEMBER: this works if...

33:58 - Irvine Langmuir

35:00 - a page from G.N. Lewis's lab notebook...

35:26 - Photo: How does this work (tungsten bulb)?

37:35 - until 1906, all lightbulbs had carbon filaments. These bulbs were also evacuated

42:20 - the Lindeman-Hinshelwood mechanism...

48:18 - let's apply the steady-state approximation...

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 22. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Midterm 2 exam review (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 22. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Midterm Exam Review --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded May 23, 2012

Index of Topics:

00:05 - some announcements

00:44 - Chem 131 C Quiz 6

03:23 - Youtube search for Chem Lectures

03:34 - chemistry lecture page with YouTube link

03:53 - what does Midterm Exam 2 cover?

04:46 - "what does Midterm Exam 2 cover?"

06:12 - Papers about La Chatellier Principle

06:52 - what was I thinking about? The ammonia synthesis reaction is:

08:10 - what was I thinking about? Iron is a catalyst for this reaction in the Haber-Bosch process...

13:38 - Problem I - entropy and the Carnot cycle (see especially Lecture 13)

14:13 - entropy - statistical definition:

14:32 - Diagram: now, there are three flavors of systems:

15:05 - The Carnot Cycle

15:16 - a heat engine extracts work from a temperature gradient.

15:37 - Graph: The Carnot Cycle

16:22 - Graph: ...ANY process can be decomposed into...

18:12 - Graph: What do we know for sure?

19:47 - how efficient is the heat engine?

20:21 - Diagram (work over heat)

20:39 - how efficient is a Carnot Cycle?

22:47 - Graph: ...now this pair...

23:49 - let's prove this...

24:03 - so the total work is:

24:51 - Problem: What is the entropy change...

25:08 - Since S is a state function we can write...

26:08 - so represented in a Temperature-Entropy diagram, a Carnot cycle looks like this...

26:33 - What if one or more steps of the process are irreversible?

27:37 - and a more general statement of this is called the Claussius Inequality

28:19 - This equation makes predictions about 3 types of processes:

28:41 - some simple but important examples:

29:18 - some simple but important examples: example - a reversible phase transition.

29:51 - example - reversible heating/cooling of a gas.

30:48 - rev. expansion/compression of a gas.

31:45 - Calculating entropy changes for reversible processes on ideal gases:

32:26 - because S is a state function...

33:20 - Because S, like U, is a state function, you can add up...

33:53 - Calculate the entropy change when...

36:47 - Problem 2

37:09 - chemical potential of species...

37:38 - really? yes, think about this way ("...partial derivative")

38:24 -...you should know...

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 23. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Lindemann-Hinshelwood part 1 (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 23. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Lindemann-Hinshelwood Part I --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Description: In Chemistry 131C, students will study how to calculate macroscopic chemical properties of systems. This course will build on the microscopic understanding (Chemical Physics) to reinforce and expand your understanding of the basic thermo-chemistry concepts from General Chemistry (Physical Chemistry.) We then go on to study how chemical reaction rates are measured and calculated from molecular properties. Topics covered include: Energy, entropy, and the thermodynamic potentials; Chemical equilibrium; and Chemical kinetics.

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

This video is part of a 27-lecture undergraduate-level course titled "Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics" taught at UC Irvine by Professor Reginald M. Penner.

Recorded on May 30, 2012

Slide Information

00:06- Lindemann-Hinshelwood

01:22- Announcements

3:19- Today: Steady-State Approximation, Lindemann-Hinshelwood Mechanism

03:46- The Steady-State Approximation

07:58- Graph: Concentration, Time

08:25- Solve the Simplified Equations that Result

09:37- How Does This Compare with the Exact Solution?

10:25- How Well the Steady State Works- Graph of Concentration, Time

11:18- The Steady-State Approximation is Breaking Down

12:30- Example: Apply the Steady-State Approximation to the Following Reaction Mechanism

18:06- Simplifying Further

21:26- Two Limiting Experimentally Observed Rate Laws

24:40- Most Elementary Reactions are Either Unimolecular or Biomolecular

25:44- Biomolecular Reactions Have an Obvious Mechanism in the Gas Phase

26:17- Transition State Graph

26:42- But How Does a Unimolecular Reaction Occur?

27:06- Unomolecular Reactions- Isomerization

27:31- Unimolecular Reacions- Decomposition Reactions

28:05- How Does this Happen? The Lindemann-Hinshelwood Mechanism Provides an Explanation

30:10- Applying the Steady-Sate Approximation to the Lindemann-Hinshelwood Mechanism

31:10- The Strong Collision Assumption

33:35- Can We Apply the Steady-State Approximation to the Mechanism?

34:14- What Does it Predict?

37:26- What Does This Mean Mechanistically?

38:04- The Kinetics of Pressure-Dependent Reactions

41:19- We Can Write the LH Rate in This Form

43:29- Does it Work? Plot

44:09- It Doesn't Work So Well

45:44- Reactions Where a Pre-Equilibrium is Established

47:45- Test the Lindemann-Hinshelwood Mechanism for the Isomerization of Cyclopropane

49:02- The Data is Not Convincing- Plot

50:18- Use the Steady State Approximation Again

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 24. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Lindemann-Hinshelwood part 2 and enzymes (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 24. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Lindemann-Hinshelwood Part II --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on June 1, 2012

Index of Topics:

00:06 - Enzymes

00:14 - Midterm II Results

01:12 - How Am I Doing?

06:36 - Today: Lindemann-Hinshelwood Mechanism, Enzyme Kinetics

07:58 - Most Elementary Reactions are Either Unimolecular or Biomolecular

09:45 - The Lindmann-Hinshelwood Mechanism Provides an Explanation

11:22 - Can We Apply the Steady-State Approximation to this Mechanism?

12:52 - What Does it Predict?

14:28 - What Does This Mean Mechanistically?

16:20 - Let's Apply the Steady-State Approximation

16:53 - The Kinetics of Pressure-Dependent Reactions

20:08 - If the LH Mechanism is Operating...Plot

20:45 - Plot: Does it Work?

21:16 - LH Mechanism: A Mechanism for Which a Pre-Equilibrium is Established

22:03 - The Reaction Will Have an Apparent Second Order

22:34 - Apply Mathematics to the Enzyme

24:42 - Schematic Illustration of Enzyme Kinetics

26:35 - Kinetic Scheme/Steady State Approximation Applied

28:52 - Solving for [(ES)]

30:05 - Obtaining the Michaelis -Menten Equation

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 25. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Enzymes (second and final attempt) (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 25. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Enzymes Pt. II --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on June 4, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:06 - Enzymes (Second & Final Attempt)

00:45 - Announcements

02:42 - Chem 1 Students...

04:47 - Today: Enzyme Kinetics, Enzyme Inhibition

5:00 - How Enzymes Catalyze Reactions

07:27 - Equations Specific to Enzyme Catalysis, Rate of Reaction

12:36 - The Michaelis-Menten Equation

13:04 - Simplifying the Rate of Reaction

15:20 - Making the Michaelis-Menten Equation Useful

15:46 - What's Happening if K2 is big?

16:56 - If K2 is Big, if [S] is Big

17:56 - And if [S] is Big, Then...

19:49 - IF [S] is Small

20:27 - Plot of Reaction Rate vs. Concentration of S

23:57 - K2=Kcat=Turnover Number

24:30 - Ratio Between V and Vmax

25:34 - Basis for the Lineweaver-Burk Plot

27:15 - The Lineweaver-Burk Plot

28:30 - Problem From Last Year's Final Exam

31:28 - What Could Possibly Happen to Mess This Up?

32:56 - Classifying Inhibitors Based Upon Their Effect on the Lineweaver-Burk Plot

34:46 - Three Flavors of Enzyme Inhibition: Competitive Inhibition

35:10 - Out Competing a Competitive Inhibitor: Plot

37:10 - What Influence Does Vmax Have on the Lineweaver-Burk Plot?

37:57 - Noncompetitive Inhibition

39:28 - Uncompetitive Inhibition

40:26 - Derive the Math For the Plots

43:13 - No Inhibitor/Inhibitor Equations

44:07 - Table of Inhibition

45:18 - The Classical Case of Competitive Inhibition: Malonate and SD

46:09 - Succinate

46:15 - Fumarate

46:36 - Competitive Inhibitors Generally Resemble the Substrate of the Protein to which They Bind

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 26. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Transition State Theory (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 26. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Transition State Theory --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded June 6, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:06 - Transition State Theory

00:13 - Announcements

01:24 - Where Are We?

02:54 - Where Does the Arrhenius Equation Come From?

03:54 - Joke

04:34 - Transition State Theory, Introduction

05:08 - History of the Transition State Theory

06:54 - Transition Sate Theory For a Gaseous Biomolecular Reaction

09:00 - Notation applied to TST

11:16 - Activated Complex

11:52 - Working Out The Reaction Rate

14:30 - Flashback to Ch. 17: Calculating Equilibrium Constants from Partition Functions

16:08 - Difference Between Zero-Point Energies

16:34 - Gibbs Free Energy as a Function of Reaction Coordinate

18:13 - Generic Equilibrium applied to TST

19:15 - TST Equilibrium

20:37 - Frequency

21:17 - Setting Two Expressions for the Reaction Rate Equal to One Another

23:25 - Calculating the Partition Function for the Transition State

25:50 - What is the Partition Function for AB++?

26:28 - Vibration Along the Reaction Coordinate

27:24 - Super Soft Mode

29:26 - Partition Function

30:54 - Rewriting K++

32:06 - The Eyring Equation

35:38 - Calculating the Pre-Exponential Factor in the Arrhenius Equation

36:17 - Applying to a Reaction that Occurs in Water

39:27 - Equilibrium Constants in Solutions are Defined in Terms of Activities

40:26 - Debye-Huckel Limiting Law

41:11 - What D-H Predicts

42:02 - Thermodynamic Equilibrium Constant

42:31 - Comparing K and K'

44:31 - Question: Adding NaCl to a Solution of Acetic Acid

46:32 - Applying this Logic to TST

47:25 - Equation for the Kinetic Salt Effect

48:00 - What Does it Mean?

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 27. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. The Final Exam (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 27. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- The Final Exam --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on June 12, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:22 - The Final Exam

05:36 - TST For Ionic Reactions in Solution

07:26 - How does the Ionic Content of a Solution Influence the Reaction Rate when Reactants are Charged?

08:52 - How Equilibrium is Influenced by Ions in Solution and the Debye-Huckel Limiting law

11:06 - Graphing what the Debye-Huckel Limiting Law Predicts

13:00 - What We Want to Know About the Plot of the Graph

14:40 - How the Equilibrium Constant is Affected by the Ionic Strength

15:33 - The Thermodynamic Equilibrium Constant and the Concentration Equilibrium Constant

16:40 - Comparing The Thermodynamic Equilibrium Constant and the Concentration Equilibrium Constant

18:28 - Question: Adding NaCl to a Solution of Acetic Acid

21:46 - Question: Solubility of the Above Problem

24:58 - Why Does This Happen? Oppositely Charge Ions Attract...

25:37 - Freely Arranging Ions In Order to Lower Their Energy

27:58 - Favoring the Most Ionic State of the System

28:23 - Applying this Logic to the TST Treatment of the Reaction

29:52 - Equations at Infinite Dilution

30:36 - Master Equation for Transition State Theory and What it Predicts

31:02 - Plotting What is Predicted

34:05 - The 131C Final Exam

35:57 - Review Problem: Calculating The Michaelis Constant, Km, Vmax, Turnover Number, Catalytic Efficiency of an Enzyme

36:33 - In Enzyme Kinetics, This is the Mechanism that Operates

37:32 - Michaeilis-Menten Kinetics Graph: Reaction Rate/Substrate Concentration

38:24 - The Lineweaver-Burk Plot

39:19 - What Your Plot Should Look Like Qualitatively

40:11 - Example Problem: Chemical Kinetics: Steady State Reaction

46:18 - More Kinetic Issues- Rules for Reaction Rate

47:06 - Method 1 for Experimentally Determining the Rate Law

48:25 - Method 2 for Experimentally Determining the Rate Law

48:41 - Example of Method 2

49:00 - Method 3: Measuring the Influence of the Initial Reactant Concentration of the Reaction Half-Life

49:36 - Summary of Three Methods

49:39 - The Arrhenius Equation

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 1A. Lec. 01. General Chemistry. Introduction to General Chemistry (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 1A General Chemistry (Winter 2013)

Lec 01. General Chemistry Introduction to General Chemistry

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_1a_general_chemistry.html

Instructor: Amanda Brindley, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Description: Chem 1A is the first quarter of General Chemistry and covers the following topics: atomic structure; general properties of the elements; covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding; intermolecular forces; mass relationships. General Chemistry (Chem 1A) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

This video is part of a 23-lecture undergraduate-level course titled "General Chemistry" taught at UC Irvine by Amanda Brindley, Ph.D.

Recorded February 25, 2013.

Index of Topics:

00:55 - What We Will Cover

01:55 - "Fundamentals"

02:40 - Significant Figures

07:08 - Significant Figures Continuted

11:44 - Dimensional Analysis: Conversion Factors

12:30 - Fundamental Problems

21:05 - Dimensional Analysis: Conversion Factors (revisited)

22:22 - Structure of an Atom

25:07 - Cartoon: Another Casualty in the War of the Sodium Atoms

26:06 - Isotopes, Natural Abundance, and Molecular Mass

28:20 - Periodic Table

28:27 - Isotopes, Natural Abundance, and Molecular Mass (revisited)

29:11 - Example Problem: Average Molecular Mass

32:29 - Periodic Table (revisited)

34:21 - Naming

37:12 - Bonding: Finding that Special Element(s) That Completes You

38:09 - Types of Bonds

38:25 - Periodic Table (revisited)

38:57 - Types of Bonds (revisited)

40:28 - Empirical Vs. Chemical Formulas

42:30 - Cartoon: Ionic Bonds

43:28 - Ionic Bonds

45:32 - Making Ionic Compounds a Helpful Trick- Balancing Charges

46:42 - Making Ionic Compounds

48:26 - Charges of Atoms

50:50 - Inert Pair Effect

51:36 - Naming Ionic Compounds

52:36 - Naming Ionic Compounds: Memorization Help

Required attribution: Brindley, Amanda Ph.D. General Chemistry 1A (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_1a_general_chemistry.html. [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

Amanda Brindley Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine