### Chem 131C. Lec. 01. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics: Syllabus, Homework, & Lectures. (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 01. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Syllabus, Homework, & Lectures --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Description: In Chemistry 131C, students will study how to calculate macroscopic chemical properties of systems. This course will build on the microscopic understanding (Chemical Physics) to reinforce and expand your understanding of the basic thermo-chemistry concepts from General Chemistry (Physical Chemistry.) We then go on to study how chemical reaction rates are measured and calculated from molecular properties. Topics covered include: Energy, entropy, and the thermodynamic potentials; Chemical equilibrium; and Chemical kinetics.

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

This video is part of a 27-lecture undergraduate-level course titled "Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics" taught at UC Irvine by Professor Reginald M. Penner.

Recorded on April 11, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:20 - Introduction

00:32 - Curvature of the Conical Intersection Seam: An Approximate Second-Order Analysis

01:15 - Announcements

02:24 - Syllabus

13:50 - Lectures

15:58 - Results

17:41 - More Information about Lecture Format ("I use powerpoint...")

18:47 - Example of Lecture Format

19:23 - Each Week-Three Inputs (Lecture Format)

21:36 - What Are We Going to Learn This Quarter?

25:50 - What's in this Lecture?

25:58 - Quantum Mechanics is Discovered (Timeline)

26:20 - Pioneers in Quantum Mechanics (Timeline)

31:26 - James Clerk Maxwell

31:44 - Maxwell Invented Free Color Photography

31:57 - First color photograph Example

32:25 - Ludwig Boltzmann

33:11 - Boltzmann's Grave in Vienna

33:23 - Willard Gibbs:

35:05 - Grove Street Cemetery:

35:35 - Statistical Mechanics: Why do We Need it?

36:40 - Using Thermodynamics

37:15 - Statistical Mechanics Establishes this Connection

37:54 - The Free Energy of Ammonia

38:32 - "Elements of Statistical Thermodynamics" Book (by Leonard K. Nash)

39:32 - Books to Buy:

40:16 - ...Consider a Molecule Having Evenly Spaced Energy Levels

40:42 - We can approximate its state distribution as shown here:

40:54 - The quantum numbers of these evenly spaced (by hv...)

40:58 - ...now imagine that you have a 3-dimensional array molecules...

42:06 - Now let's add three quanta of energy to these three molecules.

43:30 - Microstate

43:38 - Ten microstates in total:

43:42 - The 10 microstates exist in just three configurations.

44:46 - Examples of Notations (Example II)

45:08 - Examples of Configurations (I, II, III)

45:20 - Counting the Microstates Associated with Each Configuration

49:14 - Formula for Determining Total Number of Microstates

Required attribution: Penner, Reginald Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics 131C (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html. [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 02. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. The Boltzmann distribution law (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 02. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- The Boltzmann Distribution Law --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Description: In Chemistry 131C, students will study how to calculate macroscopic chemical properties of systems. This course will build on the microscopic understanding (Chemical Physics) to reinforce and expand your understanding of the basic thermo-chemistry concepts from General Chemistry (Physical Chemistry.) We then go on to study how chemical reaction rates are measured and calculated from molecular properties. Topics covered include: Energy, entropy, and the thermodynamic potentials; Chemical equilibrium; and Chemical kinetics. This video is part of a 27-lecture undergraduate-level course titled "Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics" taught at UC Irvine by Professor Reginald M. Penner.

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/.

Recorded on April 4, 2012.

Index of Topics:

01:48 - About Quiz I

04:17 - The Boltzmann Distribution Law

04:21 - What's in This Lecture?

04:44 - Consider a Harmonic Oscillator-Like State Distribution

05:04 - Now imagine that you have a 3-dimensional array of these "molecules"

06:28 - now let's add three quanta of energy to these three molecules.

06:52 - One option is to put all three quanta into one molecule.

07:40 - We shall refer to ech of these possibilities as a microstate;

07:44 - Notation for Specifying a particular configuration (families of microstates)

08:50 - Configuration Example

09:04 - Configuration Example (I, II, III)

09:59 - Configuration II Example

11:11 - Configuration I Example

14:13 - Configuration III Example

14:41 - Formula - The Number of Microstates, W, for a Particular Configuration

15:09 - Example: Consider a system of eight molecules containing four energy quota...

17:16 - How about 5 quanta in ten "molecules" (example)?

19:07 - How about 5 quanta in ten "molecules" (example II)?

20:27 - Curious: configuration VI is favored by more than 2:1 compared the others...

21:31 - Now what happens as we increase the number of molecules?

22:14 - Flipping a Coin Example

22:55 - Flipping a Coin Outcomes and Possibilities

23:24 - N coin flips, the preference of the system for the most probably configuration increases with N...

27:32 - Question: What does the big "N" stand for on Cornhuskers Stadium?

27:57 - Knowledge of this highly preferred configuration equates to knowledge of the system as a whole!

28:17 - Configuration VI is favored by more than 2:1 compared with any other...

28:21 - ...two ways to find this highly preferred configuration...

28:41 - Knowledge of this highly preferred configuration equates to knowledge of the system as a whole!

29:48 - Consider an isolated (N & Q constant) macroscopic (N large etc.) assembly of N...

31:41 - Graphic Representation

33:28 - Number of Microstates Before and After

35:46 - ...substituting from the expressions for energy defined earlier we have...

37:25 - ...this means that the left and right sides of this equality are constants, call this constant B (beta)

39:31 - The Boltzmann Distribution Law (Formula)

41:45 - Example (Solving for N)

43:07 - Molecular Partition Function, q: Two Versions (Figure)

44:17 - Example: What are the relative populations of the states of a two level system...

47:33 - Example: A certain atom has a threefold degenerate ground level...

52:33 - How much Thermal Energy is in the System? (Figure)

Required attribution: Penner, Reginald Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics 131C (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html. [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 03. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Energy & q (the partition function) (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 03. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Energy and q (The Partition Function) --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Description: In Chemistry 131C, students will study how to calculate macroscopic chemical properties of systems. This course will build on the microscopic understanding (Chemical Physics) to reinforce and expand your understanding of the basic thermo-chemistry concepts from General Chemistry (Physical Chemistry.) We then go on to study how chemical reaction rates are measured and calculated from molecular properties. Topics covered include: Energy, entropy, and the thermodynamic potentials; Chemical equilibrium; and Chemical kinetics. This video is part of a 27-lecture undergraduate-level course titled "Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics" taught at UC Irvine by Professor Reginald M. Penner.

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on April 6, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:19 - Example-A certain atom has a threefold degenerate ground level...

01:02 - Function for Calculating Degeneracy of Energy Levels

01:24 - Sum of Three Energy Levels

03:35 - We need to calculate the thermal energy kT, in units...

04:22 - Energy Level Diagram

07:20 - Example: The four lowest electronic energy levels of atomic C have energies and degeneracies as follows...

07:51 - Equation: Partition Function

08:32 - In this case, q will have four terms - one for each state

08:49 - How to Calculate the Four Terms

09:59 - Example: 9.27 of 14 total states in C...

10:24 - does this makes sense (calculating thermal energy again)

10:56 - Diagram-Electronic States of Carbon

12:53 - now find the fractional population of each level for C...

14:51 - Diagram: ...now, it will be obvious to you that W must depend on energy...

15:45 - Partition Function (W must depend on energy, but how?)

20:03 - Example: the NO molecule has a doubly degenerate excited electronic level...

21:03 - Diagram--Wave Numbers

22:05 - Example - The NO molecule has a doubly degenerate excited electronic level... (continued)

22:40 - Plot (Diagram)

23:38 - Calculating Term Populations

Required attribution: Penner, Reginald Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics 131C (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html. [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 04. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Entropy (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 04. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Entropy --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Description: In Chemistry 131C, students will study how to calculate macroscopic chemical properties of systems. This course will build on the microscopic understanding (Chemical Physics) to reinforce and expand your understanding of the basic thermo-chemistry concepts from General Chemistry (Physical Chemistry.) We then go on to study how chemical reaction rates are measured and calculated from molecular properties. Topics covered include: Energy, entropy, and the thermodynamic potentials; Chemical equilibrium; and Chemical kinetics. This video is part of a 27-lecture undergraduate-level course titled "Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics" taught at UC Irvine by Professor Reginald M. Penner.

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on April 9, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:05 - Intro Slide: Entropy

00:15 - Announcements

01:00 - Quiz I histogram

01:03 - What's in this Lecture?

01:17 - Six things we have learned about Statistical Mechanics

04:17 - Boltzman Distribution Law Diagram and Definition

04:21 - Things we Have Learned About Statistical Mechanics so Far

04:32 - The Boltzmann Distribution Law Formula (Diagram)

06:34 - Formula/Equation Diagram (the average internal energy of each of N molecules)

08:11 - Equation Diagram ("so q contains information about the averge internal energy of our system.")

09:13 - Diagram: (The NO molecule)

10:01 - Graph (b) the electronic contribution to the molar internal energy at 300K.

11:20 - Graph (b) - Evaluating formula

13:58 - (Does formula and solution make sense?)

15:37 - Chart (On p. 429 of your book, three types of ensembles are discussed as follows:)

16:24 - Chart: Microcanonical Ensembles

16:34 - About Microcanonical Ensembles

17:14 - Graph: Example: NO - it's obvious we're talking about one molecule here...

17:54 - Diagram: The Boltzmann Distribution Law in terms of the molecular partition function, q

18:14 - so q asks the question:

18:47 - Canonical Ensembles

19:38 - Well, consider just two molecules, call them a and b...

21:28 - this is the appropriate expression when the N units are distinguishable.

22:48 - Equations for two States (for two distinguishable units, we CAN tell the difference...)

24:35 - Chart: What if we had three molecules, a, b,c...

25:53 - Chart: Ensemble name| What's Constant | Its Partition Function

27:01 - Experiment: Place 100 nickels into a shoes box, all heads up

29:00 - Experiment: 1. Place 100 nickels into a shoes box, ALL heads up...

30:34 - Experiment Conclusion: "For any isolated assembly, we can always predict...

31:00 - For any isolated assembly...

31:55 - Formula: S = k In W

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 05. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. The Equipartition theorem (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 05. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- The Equipartition Theorum --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Description: In Chemistry 131C, students will study how to calculate macroscopic chemical properties of systems. This course will build on the microscopic understanding (Chemical Physics) to reinforce and expand your understanding of the basic thermo-chemistry concepts from General Chemistry (Physical Chemistry.) We then go on to study how chemical reaction rates are measured and calculated from molecular properties. Topics covered include: Energy, entropy, and the thermodynamic potentials; Chemical equilibrium; and Chemical kinetics. This video is part of a 27-lecture undergraduate-level course titled "Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics" taught at UC Irvine by Professor Reginald M. Penner.

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on April 11, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:21 - Announcements

02:34 - Diagram: in real molecules, the situation is considerably more complex than the Harmonic Oscillator

03:20 - We have a very high density of translational states that are not, in reality...

03:36 - Diagram: these translational states are nested within rotational states

03:58 - Diagrams (many rotational states)

04:23 - ...we can treat each of these energetic manifolds...

05:45 - What's in this Lecture

05:51 - Your book mainly focuses attention on...

07:27 - Graph 5-13: Here is what happens to Cv as a function of T for a diatomic molecule:

10:04 - Graph 5-13 These are the rotation temperature...

11:08 - Graph 5-13 Here is what happens to Cv as a function of T...

11:37 - The Equipartition Theorum

12:10 - The Equipartition Theorum (with diagram)

13:17 - consider the classical Hamiltonian for a I D harmonic oscillator:

14:16 - now you'll recall that the heat capacity...

15:03 - Example: Formula

15:50 - Graph

16:13 - ...this is also the heat capacity for all monoatomic gases...

18:29 - For a linear molecule...

19:41 - Graph (Translation + Rotation)

20:26 - For a nonlinear molecule...

20:54 - What about for higher temperatures?

22:08 - so following through with the predictions of the equipartition theorem...

23:05 - so for a diatomic molecule...

24:24 - Example: Use the equipartition theorem to estimate...

31:18 - Example: Use the equipartition theorum to estimate... (Part B)

34:36 - Example: (Chart) "Use the equipartition theorum to estimate... (Part C)

38:55 - Calculate Each Term

39:18 - We'll Start with Translation...

39:40 - The translational energy of a classical gas molecule is:

40:15 - ...And a quantum mechanical gas has energies given by the particle-in-a-box model.

40:23 - we'll concentrate attention now on ideal monoatomic gases...

41:27 - consider first a monoatomic gas in one dimension.

43:59 - ...now these energies are very closely spaced. Consider, for example, an argon atom in a box...

45:25 - Log Scale

45:52 - ...if these states are quasi-continuous, we can rewrite this summation...

46:54 - so after integration we have...

47:05 - Example "Calculate..."

48:26 - What would...three dimensional cube?

49:36 - ...in terms of...now we calculate its transitional energy.

50:03 - ...and this yields a very simple expression:

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 06. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. The Rotational partition function (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 06. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- The Rotational Partition Function --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Description: In Chemistry 131C, students will study how to calculate macroscopic chemical properties of systems. This course will build on the microscopic understanding (Chemical Physics) to reinforce and expand your understanding of the basic thermo-chemistry concepts from General Chemistry (Physical Chemistry.) We then go on to study how chemical reaction rates are measured and calculated from molecular properties. Topics covered include: Energy, entropy, and the thermodynamic potentials; Chemical equilibrium; and Chemical kinetics. This video is part of a 27-lecture undergraduate-level course titled "Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics" taught at UC Irvine by Professor Reginald M. Penner.

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on April 13, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:05 - Introduction

00:19 - Announcements

01:10 - What's in this Lecture?

01:25 - Neglecting electronic energy levels...

01:41 - Vibration, Rotation, Translation Diagrams

02:19 - but we're lucky. We can treat each of these energetic manifolds separately...

02:51 - ...consider first a monoatomic gas in one dimension...

03:43 - ...so its molecular partition function, q, is:

04:29 - Diagram: Calculation of Ground State and Excited State

05:02 - Diagram: ...looking at the energy spacing of the first 100 states...

05:40 - ...If these states are quasi-continuous, we can rewrite this summation...

06:08 - Diagram: ...so after integration we have:

06:13 - Example: Calculate...

07:22 - Diagram: ...is related to the molecular properties through the mass...

08:28 - In terms of...

09:24 - Diagram: the enthalpy, H...

09:52 - Chart: so we can calculate everything for ideal, monoatomic gases...

11:10 - ...this begins to fulfill the promise of Statistical Mechanics:

11:41 - ...works for all ideal molecules.

11:51 - we have a manifold of rotational states that looks like this...

12:20 - ...and the energies of these states are given by the expression...

14:13 - ...B here has units of joules:

14:53 - ...I'm easily confused, so I try to stick to Joules:

15:26 - so let's work out the expression for...

16:01 - our usual expression for q applies for each of these three orthogonal axes:

16:27 - ...so if we write out this series, here's what it is:

18:36 - when B is expressed in Joules, these are the equations for the rotational partition function that apply:

19:43 - what's a symmetry number?

21:14 - huh? what axis?

21:59 - Ammonia

22:36 - Number of Symmetries:

26:55 - Example: Exercise 17.4a What is the symmetry of:

31:11 - Example: What is the symmetry number of:

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 07. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Vibrational partitional functions (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 07. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Vibrational Partition Functions --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on April 16, 2013.

Index of Topics:

00:05 - Introduction: Vibrational Partition Functions

00:17 - Quiz 2 Histogram

00:41 - The Symmetry Number

04:14 - We also get this answer using my approach.

07:09 - Aluminum Chloride Atoms Example

09:45 - We also get this answer using my approach (Diagram example)

13:03 - What is the symmetry number of: benzene?

15:43 - Estimate the rotational partition function for HCl...

16:09 - Linear molecules lacking a center of symmetry:

16:41 - Estimate the rotational...(formula)

19:12 - Calculate the rotational partition function for methane.

22:02 - Vibrational States

23:23 - ...including the zero point energy, we have...

24:52 - this geometric series has the form:

25:40 - how big is...

28:04 - Example: The triatomic molecule, chlorine dioxide (OCIO) has three vibrational modes...

31:42 - Graph: What Does the T-dependence...look like?

32:45 - Of course, molecular dissociation would occur before...

32:58 - thinking about the partition functions at room temperature, we conclude...

33:24 - What about vibrational energy?

35:13 - E=RT, Equipartition Theorum

36:13 - Here's a midterm exam question from a couple of years ago:

37:55 - Midterm exam solution

39:10 - Equations Page of Exam

41:03 - Calculations and Solution

41:40 - If you are asked: calculate the fractions of molecules for which...

42:25 - Calculations: ("now one mole of...)

44:47 - Example

45:07 - B. Now one mole of...

45:18 - Example (as in 44:47)

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 08. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. The First Law (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 08. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- The First Law --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on April 18, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:01 - Announcements

00:58 - Example: the triatomic molecule, chlorine dioxide...

04:27 - Plot of equation (Diagram)

09:40 - Thermodynamics

11:39 - Energy

14:24 - In Thermodynamics, we divide the universe into the system...

15:30 - Diagram: Now there are three flavors of systems:

17:32 - Glossary of Thermodynamic Jargon (Types of Equilibrium)

18:15 - We'll be talking about closed systems until further notice.

20:23 - now, we know what heat is, but what is work?

21:28 - let's think about mechanical work...

23:54 - the external force is:

25:57 - now what happens to the volume?

28:27 - Example: Calculate the work required to compress...

30:15 - Our equation for work...

31:45 - Answer: Graphically, this experiment is as shown below...

34:23 - So instead of compressing the piston using the entire mass necessary...

35:01 - Diagram: Step 1

35:18 - Step 2

36:22 - Conclusion:

36:24 - Diagram: so, more steps means less work.

36:52 - In the thermodynamics, a reversible process is any process the direction of which can be reversed by...

38:54 - Diagram: so instead of dividing the mass into two parts...

40:07 - ...add one granule at a time to the piston

40:50 - So as an example...

43:38 - Chart: Summary:

44:37 - Let me just point out that both of these equations conform...

45:47 - other flavors of work...

46:27 - that's w, what about q?

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 09. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. The 1st law (review) & adiabatic processes part II (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 09. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- The First Law (review) & Adiabatic Processes Part II --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on April 20, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:07 - In Today's Lecture

00:20 - heat, q, and work, w

00:51 - The Sign Convention

01:16 - Formula and Diagram ("surroundings")

03:19 - Diagram: (heat, q...)

04:11 - Other Flavors of Work:

04:30 - That's w, what about q?

05:27 - Since chemical reactions are typically carried out at a constant...

06:01 - Formula: it's convenient to give the quantities in parentheses a name...

06:33 - "Two forms of.." Calcite and Aragonite photo

06:55 - Problem: The change in U when 1.0 mole of calcite is...

09:43 - The heat capacity is the slope of the U (or H)

11:14 - Problem: a common method for measuring heat capacities...

13:31 - "Heat capacity over constant pressure..." (formulas and solutions)

14:16 - Problem: Find ΔH for the heating of 2.0000 moles...

16:47 - Adiabatic Processes

20:58 - Graph ("Isotherm...")

23:18 - Problem: 2.0 moles of neon that expands adiabatically...

Gianmarc Johns Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 10. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Jim Joule (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 10. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Jim Joule --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on April 25, 2012.

Index of Topics:

04:13 - In an adiabatic process, q=0 for the process...

07:51 - note: The change in P with an expansion is larger...

08:04 - Isotherm Graph

10:21 - ...now it's not obvious from these equations...

13:27 - About Jim Joule

14:20 - Joule's dad was a brewer

18:24 - Now, you should know that Joule was quite an experimentalist.

20:09 - Diagram: He actually did this experiment quantitatively

21:04 - The quantity of work that must be expended at sea-level...

22:35 - 77255 and California DMV

22:58 - Diagram: ...so in 1853, he did the following experiment

23:44 - So why did Joule expect a temperature change?

23:49 - ...this is the Leonard-Jones 6-12 potential.

27:29 - For an ideal gas, the intermolecular potential...

27:38 - Diagram: At high pressures, you're here.

28:17 - Diagram: At "normal" pressures, you're here.

28:43 - Well, recall that for a real gas, the compressibility factor...

29:09 - The compressibility factor, Z, for a real gas...

30:29 - The compressibility factor, Z, for a real gas reflects these two manifolds...

31:00 - (Diagram) Now, let's do a thought experiment...

32:33 - question: where does the energy come from?

34:03 - 1853: Jim Joule tried to measure...

35:05 - 1854: Joule teams up with a new friend, William Thompson (AKA Lord Kelvin)

36:40 - The Joule-Thompson Effect...

39:43 - so, the Joule-Thompson process occurs at constant enthalpy.

41:12 - but Joule and Thompson were delighted to find that for real gases...

41:52 - Problem: The Joule-Thompson coefficient of air at 300K and 25 atm...

45:13 - "Plot from your Chapter 14...temperature as a function of pressure."

45:54 - note that real gases have two inversion temperatures at each pressure value:

47:13 - The Linde Refrigerator: A mechanical heat pump...

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 11. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Midterm 1 review (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 11. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Midterm 1 Review --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

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More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on April 25, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:05 - Announcements

00:28 - Midterm Exam

00:52 - Partition Functions: Enjoy in any of Four Flavors...

01:51 - Example: The NO molecule has a doubly degenerate...

03:24 - Plot It:

05:01 - ...(b) the electronic contribution to the molar internal energy...

05:08 - Equations

05:22 - More Equations

05:38 - (Diagram) The electronic contribution to the molar internal energy...

06:32 - Here's a midterm exam question from a couple of years ago.

08:42 - Which equation(s) do I need?

10:31 - If you are asked: calculate the fraction of molecules...

10:48 - so what were we asked again? B. Now one mole of...

12:06 - The equipartition theorem:

13:33 - now you'll recall that the heat capacity...

14:15 - Formula: the equipartition theorem tells us...

14:17 - the equipartition theorem tells us that translation contributes...

14:41 - Graph: the contribution of molecular translation...

14:55 - Formula: ...this is also the heat capacity for all monoatomic gases

16:01 - For a linear molecule:

16:44 - Graph: translation + rotation

16:53 - For nonlinear molecule:

17:45 - ...well, let's go back to the classical Hamiltonian again.

18:12 - so following through with the predictions of the equipartition...

18:58 - Formula: in the specific case of a diatomic, we get:

19:02 - Formula Graph:

19:10 - Example: Use the equipartition theorem to estimate...

20:05 - Too subjective, let's use this rule of thumb:

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 12. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Entropy and the 2nd law (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 12. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Entropy and The Second Law --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

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More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on April 30, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:09 - Introduction

01:02 - Announcements

02:11 - where are we (chapter and timeline)?

04:00 - 1st Law: Energy is conserved for an isolated system ΔU = 0.

05:32 - Coin Experiment

06:35 - experiment: conclusion (the most important one so far)

06:51 - Boltzmann postulated that this parameter

07:11 - We can readily apply this equation to this expansion of gas.

08:11 - Now, what is the probability that...

09:05 - Problem: Gas A and Gas B are located in two halves of a container

13:07 - What if instead of the change in entropy...

13:33 - Formula (S =)

14:09 - Calculate the standard molar entropy of neon gas at (a) 200K, (b) 298.15K.

15:53 - Sadi Carnot

17:54 - match the scientist with his country

18:44 - entropy

19:28 - the Carnot Cycle

21:00 - A heat engine extracts work from a temperature gradient

21:41 - The Carnot Cycle (graph)

23:31 - what do we know for sure? (graph continued from Carnot Cycle)

24:18 - how efficient is a heat engine?

25:10 - efficiency (slide at 24:18 continued)

26:24 - how efficient is a Carnot Cycle?

27:28 - let's prove this:

27:52 - now, this pair of (T,V) data points lie on an adiabat:

29:55 - Problem: A heat pump is used to maintain the temperature of a building at 18°C...

32:03 - Problem: What is the entropy change, ΔS, for each of the four steps as a reversible Carnot cycle

32:31 - Diagram: Since S is a state function, we can write:

33:50 - so we represented in a Temperature-Entropy diagram...

34:48 - Since S is a state function, we can write:

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 13. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Carnot cycle (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 13. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- The Carnot Cycle --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

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More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Description: In Chemistry 131C, students will study how to calculate macroscopic chemical properties of systems. This course will build on the microscopic understanding (Chemical Physics) to reinforce and expand your understanding of the basic thermo-chemistry concepts from General Chemistry (Physical Chemistry.) We then go on to study how chemical reaction rates are measured and calculated from molecular properties. Topics covered include: Energy, entropy, and the thermodynamic potentials; Chemical equilibrium; and Chemical kinetics.

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on May 2, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:06 - Introduction: The Carnot Cycle (Lecture 13)

01:02 - Announcements

02:39 - Midterm I Score

07:04 - How Am I Doing (Scores)?

09:37 - Sadi Carnot

10:52 - A heat engine extracts work from a temperature gradient.

11:38 - The Carnot Cycle

12:43 - The Carnot Cycle (Graph)

12:56 - ...ANY process can be decomposed into a large number of Carnot Cycles, so...

14:59 - how efficient is a heat engine?

16:12 - Let's prove this:

16:37 - (Graph) now, this pair of (T,V) data points lie on an adiabat:

20:27 - Problem: What is the entropy change...

21:05 - Since S is a state function, we can write:

24:07 - Formulas: What do we know?

25:55 - so (once again) represented in a Temperature-Entropy...

26:43 - What if one or more steps of the process are irreversible?

30:13 - Rudolf Clausius!

30:50 - T-shirt of Clausius

31:31 - and a more general statement of this is called the Clausius Inequality

31:59 - let's say we transition from state I to state 2...

33:02 - according to the Clausius inequality:

33:42 -The Second Law of Thermodynamics.

33:48 - This equation makes predictions about 3 types of processes:

34:30 - If we consider, in particular, an isolated system...

35:18 - some simple but important examples:

36:55 - some simple but important examples: (II)

39:53- Because S, like U, is a state function, you can add...

40:34 - example - Calculate the entropy change when Ar gas...

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 14. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. The Gibbs Energy (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 14. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- The Gibbs Energy --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on May 4, 2012.

Index of Topics:

02:15 - Introduction (The Gibbs Energy)

03:30 - ...just one of these guys won Nobel Prize - which one?

07:14 - J. Willard Gibbs (1839 - 1903)

10:44 - ...has its own Facebook page

10:57 - buried in the Grove Street cemetery...

11:10 - Map "...Yale campus"

11:37 - Map II

12:10 - we now know some basic thermodynamics concepts and their statistical...

12:52 - Diagram: The system and the surroundings: Three flavors...

13:39 - Diagram: For an isolated system, the entropy of the system increases during a spontaneous process:

14:13 - Diagram: If the system isn't isolated, then the entropy of both the system...

15:03 - For an isolated system, the entropy of the system increases...

16:26 - (cont) q is a conserved quantity...

17:59 - now multiply by...

26:04 - but in chemistry, T is frequently constant...

28:02 - for any process occurring at const. volume...

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 15. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Getting to Know the Gibbs Energy (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 15. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Getting to Know The Gibbs Energy --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on May 7, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:06 - Introduction: Getting to know the Gibbs Energy

00:51 - Announcements:

01:54 - UC Irvine wins NCAA men's volleyball title...

02:19 - Today's tasks

02:42 - Diagram: The system and the surroundings: Three flavors...

04:22 - Formula (spontaneous process: nonisolated system)

04:43 - q is a conserved quantity...

06:09 - Chart: in Friday's lecture...

07:20 - in chemistry, T is frequently constant...

07:55 - let's consider...

09:57 - to achieve the const. volume condition...

11:16 - for any process occurring at const. volume and temperature...

11:50 - In chemistry, it is even more useful to be able to make predictions...

14:17 - for any process occurring at const. pressure...

14:37 - today (and, ahem, last Friday)

14:54 - Chart

15:56 - Graph ("reaction coordinate...")

19:10 - Among these four thermodynamic "potentials"...

20:37 - How does G depend on temperature?

21:00 - conclusions:

21:20 - plot (Gibbs energy and temperature)

22:04 - now, if we substitute from this equation for S...

22:31 - substitute and solve for the derivative

23:30 - now, to go further, note the chain rule that tells us that:

24:40 - (cont) this bad boy is called the Gibbs-Helmholtz Eq.

25:56 - Ok, now how does G depend on pressure...

27:35 - conclusion: Gibbs energies of solids and liquids...

28:18 - Gibbs energies of gases depend strongly on P.

29:20 - Diagram, Formula

30:19 - We define a standard molar Gibbs...

31:08 - Graph, Formula

32:54 - exercise 15, 29b: The change in the Gibbs energy of 25 g...

39:20 - exercise 15.24b: Calculate the standard Gibbs free energy change...

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 16. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. The Chemical Potential (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 16. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- The Chemical Potential --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on May 9, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:05 - Announcements:

01:41 - Today:

02:40 - The Chemical Potential

02:50 - ...from last Monday, and last Friday:

03:48 - useful | more useful

04:49 - Graph (What does...)

06:28 - How does G depend on temperature?

08:28 - The third law of thermodynamics...

09:50 - Graph

10:32 - We usually consider the temp. dependence of...

11:26 - This bad boy is called the Gibbs-Helmholtz Eq.

12:09 - This bad boy...(cont)

12:43 - Ok, now how does G depend on pressure...

13:54 - but, for phases, like solids and liquids, that are essentially...

14:17 - For ideal gases:

14:47 - conclusion: Gibbs energies of solids and liquids...

15:40 - The T-dependence of the Gibbs function:

17:31 - Now, as we transition (however briefly) into...

18:06 - How do individual reactant and product species...

18:17 - Matter matters: How is G affected by transfers...

18:45 - we haven't said much about open systems that exchange matter:

18:54 - consider the mixing of two isotopes of hydrogen (experiment)

21:10 - since G is an extensive variable

22:09 - we understand the T and P dependencies of G already...

23:57 - we know, after we open the valve, the isotopes will...

26:06 - combining these statements allows us to express...

28:05 - so with the valve open, mixing stops when...

29:33 - The partial molar Gibbs free energy is to..

32:34 - the partial molar Gibbs free energy (cont)

32:44 - The figure from your book really helps...

34:54 - the partial molar Gibbs free energy is too important

39:38 - exercise 16.4b: A mixture of ethanol and water is prepared...

42:34 - Now, we already understand that G is minimized upon an approach to equilibrium...

42:39 - In other words...

44:00 - This is called the Gibbs-Duhem Eq.

44:57 - Graph: This permits an understanding of thermal phase transactions:

45:36 - We already know how this works for, say, water:

49:13 - "the system "selects" the phase of lowest..."

49:24 - now, before we go further, let's clear up some mystery...

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 17. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Finding Equilibrium (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 17. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Finding Equilibrium --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on May 11, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:06 - Introduction Finding Equilibrium

00:21 - today:

00:58 - how do individual reactant and product...

01:22 - what can we deduce about the equilibrium state...

01:35 - we know, after we open the valve...

02:19 - so with the valve open, we showed that the mixing stops when:

03:35 - the chemical potential of species I.

04:47 - really? yes, think about it this way:

07:16 - you should know...

10:18 - Now, we already understand that G is minimized upon...

10:31 - now, before we go further, let's clear up a mystery...

11:25 - let's return to our two gas bulbs:

11:42 - ...let's return to...

12:02 - Diagram: ...we open the valve...

12:31 - Let's calculate G:

14:49 - hey, that's not on the line.

15:51 - now, since we know: ΔG = ΔH - TΔS...

16:38 - Graph

17:59 - resveratrol makes things live longer...what things?

18:22 - resveratrol makes things live longer...what things (photos)

18:46 - it also prevents cancer in mice...

19:20 - and resveratrol is found in red wine.

19:42 - does this have anything to do with thermodynamics?

20:19 - consider this generic isomerization reaction:

21:01 - Example

21:14 - now, our plot of G versus reaction coordinate...

21:46 - we define the slope of this plot at any value...

23:08 - so under conditions of const. P and...

24:58 - "that means there's three types of reactions..."

25:20 - It's a strange word, infrequently used even by chemists...

25:51 - Exergonic

25:57 - ok, but we still have not learned any more about WHERE equilibrium...

26:40 - we define a standard molar Gibbs free energy...

28:19 - ok, now for every value of...

29:45 - in other words...

30:00 - what does this mean?

31:23 - ...refresher on...

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 18. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Equilibrium in Action (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 18. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Equilibrium In Action --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on May 14, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:06 - Introduction - Equilibrium in Action

00:21 - Good job on Quiz 5

01:19 - Today

01:45 - the chemical potential of species...

02:34 - ...think about this way "...Gibbs energy"

03:33 - about μ, you should know...

04:44 - now, before we go further, let's clear up a mystery...

05:31 - Diagram

06:36 - Diagram: This is the positive entropy of mixing - the reason equilibrium exists.

07:39 - Consider this generic reaction ("extent of reaction...)

08:07 - For example, if ΔΕ...

08:30 - now, our plot of G versus reaction coordinate can be recast...

08:48 - we define the slope of this plot at any value of E...

09:47 - so under conditions of const. P and...

10:54: so as a function of E...

11:35 - ok, but we still have not learned any more about WHERE equilibrium is located...

12:43 - we define a standard molar Gibbs free energy...

13:41 - ok, now for every value...

15:10 - In other words...

15:45 - what does this mean?

16:17 - ok, make sense. What about...

17;36 - ...refresher on...("from Chem 1...")

18:54 - returning to our plot, we can say...

20:01 - example: A mixture of CO(g)...

21:41 - Diagram: our reaction looks like this...

24:10 - answer: 2) write an expression for...

24:39 - answer: 3) Calculate K:

25:29 - we know Q and K - what happens?

25:47 - Calculate

26:35 - ...means reaction, at this temperature and with this mix...

27:28 - example: What if, instead of...

28:26 - "we will make a little more methanol...by adding more..."

29:26 - example: Consider the following reaction...

36:48 - answer

39:58 - Henry Louis Le Chatelier (1850 - 1936)

40:19 - (cont) "I let the discovery of the ammonia synthesis slip through my hands..."

42:35 - the most influential persons of the 20th century?

44:17 - where did fixed nitrogen come from before 1920?

45:48 - Le Chatelier's Principle says, for example...that with an increase...

47:22 - Example: Can we determine the relationship between...

47:44 - answer: " we have to calculate the mole fraction of each of these two components..."

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 19. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. Observational Chemical Kinetics (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 19. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- Observational Chemical Kinetics --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on May 16, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:06 - Introduction: Observational chemical kinetics

00:17 - Henry Louis Chatelier (1850 - 1936)

00:25 - Henry Lous Chatelier..."I let the discovery of the ammonia sythesis slip..."

02:21 - Le Chatelier's Principle says, for example, that with an increase in the total...

02:47 - example: Can we determine the relationship between...

03:06 - answer:

06:30 - what about the influence of temperature on K?

08:12 - That's it for Thermodynamics (Topic discussed in Chapter 17)

10:11 - Diagram: where are we?

12:30 - the first chemical subjected to kinetic analysis?

13:12 - some notation & jargon...a stoichiometric reaction...

17:30 - so an elementary reaction is one in which the indicated products...

17:53 - we discussed the extent of reaction...

18:52 - this is not as confusing as it looks. Here's an example...

20:19 - in terms of the extent of reaction...

22:44 - ...for this generation reaction...

23:20 - in terms of the extent of reaction...

23:30 - A rate law relates the concentration of reactants...

28:23 - for stoichiometric reactions, the rate law can not be deduced by inspection.

30:08 - Often, reactions are significantly reversible and both the forward and backward...

32:10 - be reminded that these simple expressions apply only because...

33:35 - what are the units of the rate constant in this case?

34:46 - Method 1. Method of Initial Rates

40:05 - Method 2. Use an integrated rate law.

43:59 - Method 2. (continued) Half-life

45:17 - Graph: (length of half of line is constant.)

45:55 - How do we experimentally determine the rate of law

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine

### Chem 131C. Lec. 20. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics. The Integrated Rate Law (English) Lecture

UCI Chem 131C Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Spring 2012)

Lec 20. Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics -- The Integrated Rate Law --

View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_131c_thermodynamics_and_chemical_dynamics.html

Instructor: Reginald Penner, Ph.D.

Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info.

More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu

Thermodynamics and Chemical Dynamics (Chem 131C) is part of OpenChem: http://ocw.uci.edu/openchem/

Recorded on May 18, 2012.

Index of Topics:

00:09 - Introduction: Integrated Law

00:18 - today...

00:41 - Two types of reactions: take for example the following:

02:19 - stoichiometric

03:12 - for elementary reactions...

04:09 - this is another bimolecular reaction

07:14 - How do we experimentally determine the rate law?

17:48 - Method 3 - Use the integrated rate law to define the half-life of the reaction.

20:30 - vs time for a 2nd order reaction...

21:10 - Method 2: Use an integrated rate law.

21:56 - we've mentioned 1st order and 2nd order reactions...zero order reaction.

23:15 - [A] vs time for a 0 order reaction

23:56 - what kind of reaction does this?

24:36 - the microscopic view of "heterogeneous" catalysis

26:00 - some common integrated rate laws.

27:06 - so in reality, we have three methods for classifying a reaction...

28:30 - Method 3. Measuring the influence of initial reactant concentration...

29:08 - example: what % will decompose after one hour?

30:34 - For reversible reactions, we mentioned...

31:34 - Let's start with the simplest reversible reaction:

Reginald Penner Chemistry Dept. | Physical Sciences Sch. | University of California, Irvine